Causes of acute kidney failure: Prerenal failure is the most common type of acute kidney failure. Over a brief period, the kidneys stop receiving enough blood to filter. Causes include: blockage/atherosclerosis; dehydration (from vomiting, diarrhea, water pills or blood loss); or disruption of blood flow to the kidneys for various reasons. Postrenal failure is the rarest form of acute kidney failure, and is usually caused by something blocking the elimination of urine produced by the kidneys, for example, a kidney stone or enlarged prostate.
Causes of chronic kidney disease: This umbrella term includes conditions that damage the kidneys. Causes include diabetes, high blood pressure, and a family history of kidney disease. The disease often progresses slowly, but can eventually lead to kidney failure.
- For short term and immediate access:
- Catheter: a long soft tube is inserted in the large vein either in the neck or under the collar bone.
- For long term access:
- Arterivenous graft: a man-made tube called a graft is inserted under the skin to connect an artery to a vein.
- Arterivenous fistula: a surgically created passage in which an artery is directly connected to a vein.
- Peritoneal dialysis (PD) may be used where a catheter is surgically inserted into the abdomen on a permanent basis.
The vascular surgeons at Beth Israel routinely treat patients who require dialysis access.